On the treadmill this morning (a time I usually reserve for non-development thinking), a story from Malawi popped up via This American Life on my ipod. They continue covering stories on aid issues in ways that are, for the most part, respectful and engaging, this one specifically related to HIV prevention programs.
This American Life 444: Gossip, Originally aired 8/26/11
Summary from the TAL website: In Malawi, in southeast Africa, not gossiping can be worse than gossiping. Sarah interviews a young Malawian woman named Hazel Namandingo, who explains that because so many people have HIV and AIDS in Malawi, they often rely on gossip to figure out who’s safe to date or marry. It turns out this kind of gossip is the basis for a huge research project about AIDS in Malawi. For 10 years, a sociologist named Susan Watkins has been collecting journals filled with gossip about AIDS. Watkins hired local people to write the journals—to just listen to what people were saying in their communities about the virus, and then write it down. What Watkins learned from reading them bucked much of the conventional wisdom about how rural Africans were dealing with the epidemic. (Plus, they’re really entertaining.)
Give it a listen here: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/444/gossip
While the piece started out strong, my admittedly sensitive ears did eventually get an overdose of “they” and “them”—those otherwise innocuous, yet potentially “othering” words of the English language.
Nonetheless, the research itself seems important, grounded, and highlights key issues of “aid elites,” the role of qualitative research, and the need for the aid agenda or program approaches to not be conceived by people sitting in Washington D.C. Unfortunately the research shows that in the case of HIV prevention, the standard, over-simplified interventions devised by the public health and development “experts” i.e. NGOs and donors, are largely missing the mark.
As Emily Cavan so eloquently explains, ”The agenda of development aid should not be set by people so far removed from the uncertainty of life.”
Excerpt from the episode:
Something that’s not at all in the agenda of the [HIV] prevention community is partner selection. They advise each other to be careful before you select a partner, ask around, see what her behavior is, see who knows her.
[Host: So what does this mean for prevention programs?]
It means that they did some programs that weren’t necessary because they were telling them to talk about AIDS when they were already talking about AIDS…[a discussion already underway.]
What that stuff did was justify spending money on things that, to be fair, the prevention community thought would be important because they didn’t know what was going on outside of their offices basically.
[Host: The problem…Malawi depends on outside money for AIDS prevention, big donors and NGOs. So to make sure that money keeps coming, the Malawi government tailors its AIDS prevention strategy to whatever the international trends are, even if those trends are based on assumptions about rural Africans that aren’t necessarily true.]
You have to be kind of sympathetic to someone sitting in Washington D.C. at the offices of USAID. How are they going to know what goes on? What they know generally about rural Malawians comes through the Malawian aid elites largely, cause those are the people they interact with.
To learn more, I recommend reading, “Pioneers, Partners, Providers: The Dynamics of Civil Society & AIDS Funding in Southern Africa” by The Centre for AIDS Development, Research and Evaluation in South Africa.